Leetcode - Minimum Increment to Make Array Unique

https://leetcode.com/problems/minimum-increment-to-make-array-unique/

Given an array of integers A, a move consists of choosing any `A[i]`, and incrementing it by `1`.

Return the least number of moves to make every value in `A` unique.

Example 1:

```Input: [1,2,2]
Output: 1
Explanation:  After 1 move, the array could be [1, 2, 3].
```

Example 2:

```Input: [3,2,1,2,1,7]
Output: 6
Explanation:  After 6 moves, the array could be [3, 4, 1, 2, 5, 7].
It can be shown with 5 or less moves that it is impossible for the array to have all unique values.
```

Leetcode - Third Maximum Number

https://leetcode.com/problems/third-maximum-number/

Given a non-empty array of integers, return the third maximum number in this array. If it does not exist, return the maximum number. The time complexity must be in O(n).

Example 1:

```Input: [3, 2, 1]

Output: 1

Explanation: The third maximum is 1.
```

Leetcode - Height Checker

https://leetcode.com/problems/height-checker/

Students are asked to stand in non-decreasing order of heights for an annual photo.

Return the minimum number of students that must move in order for all students to be standing in non-decreasing order of height.

Notice that when a group of students is selected they can reorder in any possible way between themselves and the non selected students remain on their seats.

Example 1:

```Input: heights = [1,1,4,2,1,3]
Output: 3
Explanation:
Current array : [1,1,4,2,1,3]
Target array  : [1,1,1,2,3,4]
On index 2 (0-based) we have 4 vs 1 so we have to move this student.
On index 4 (0-based) we have 1 vs 3 so we have to move this student.
On index 5 (0-based) we have 3 vs 4 so we have to move this student.
```

Leetcode - Sort Array By Parity

https://leetcode.com/problems/sort-array-by-parity/

Given an array `A` of non-negative integers, return an array consisting of all the even elements of `A`, followed by all the odd elements of `A`.

You may return any answer array that satisfies this condition.

Example 1:

```Input: [3,1,2,4]
Output: [2,4,3,1]
The outputs [4,2,3,1], [2,4,1,3], and [4,2,1,3] would also be accepted.
```

Leetcode - Duplicate Zeros

https://leetcode.com/problems/duplicate-zeros/

Given a fixed length array `arr` of integers, duplicate each occurrence of zero, shifting the remaining elements to the right.

Note that elements beyond the length of the original array are not written.

Do the above modifications to the input array in place, do not return anything from your function.

Example 1:

```Input: [1,0,2,3,0,4,5,0]
Output: null
Explanation: After calling your function, the input array is modified to: [1,0,0,2,3,0,0,4]
```

Leetcode - Sort Transformed Array

Given a sorted array of integers nums and integer values a, b and c. Apply a quadratic function of the form f(x) = ax2 + bx + c to each element x in the array.

The returned array must be in sorted order.

Expected time complexity: O(n)

Example 1:

```Input: nums = [-4,-2,2,4], a = 1, b = 3, c = 5
Output: [3,9,15,33]
```

Leetcode - Squares of a Sorted Array

https://leetcode.com/problems/squares-of-a-sorted-array/

Given an array of integers `A` sorted in non-decreasing order, return an array of the squares of each number, also in sorted non-decreasing order.

Example 1:

```Input: [-4,-1,0,3,10]
Output: [0,1,9,16,100]
```

Leetcode - Find Numbers with Even Number of Digits

https://leetcode.com/problems/find-numbers-with-even-number-of-digits/

Given an array `nums` of integers, return how many of them contain an even number of digits.

Example 1:

```Input: nums = [12,345,2,6,7896]
Output: 2
Explanation:
12 contains 2 digits (even number of digits).
345 contains 3 digits (odd number of digits).
2 contains 1 digit (odd number of digits).
6 contains 1 digit (odd number of digits).
7896 contains 4 digits (even number of digits).
Therefore only 12 and 7896 contain an even number of digits.
```

Leetcode - Valid Palindrome II

https://leetcode.com/problems/valid-palindrome-ii/

Given a non-empty string `s`, you may delete at most one character. Judge whether you can make it a palindrome.

Example 1:

```Input: "aba"
Output: True
```

Example 2:

```Input: "abca"
Output: True
Explanation: You could delete the character 'c'.
```

Leetcode - Consecutive Characters

https://leetcode.com/problems/consecutive-characters/

Given a string `s`, the power of the string is the maximum length of a non-empty substring that contains only one unique character.

Return the power of the string.

Example 1:

```Input: s = "leetcode"
Output: 2
Explanation: The substring "ee" is of length 2 with the character 'e' only.
```